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Printer Friendly VersionSelected Information - Completed Research

CP327  Chlorination: Planning for PR09 Water Treatment
Project Appreciation and Objectives

Chlorine remains the most widely used disinfectant and oxidant chemical in UK water treatment. In recent years a number of changes have occurred that affect the options for obtaining chlorine and their relative cost: improved efficiency for on-site chlorine generation; stricter regulatory attitude to chlorine gas storage and handling; marked increase in energy costs and market changes. As a consequence the relative costs and availability of different sources of chlorine have changed. Those responsible for asset planning and setting long term strategies for chlorination technology need comprehensive information on current and future trends in this critical area.

This study reviewed in detail, regulatory, market and technological changes in order to a comprehensive comparison of the 4 major sources of chlorine, based on cost and other criteria.

Benefits to Clients

  • Identification of the option of least direct cost for new chlorine installations.
  • Understand the medium and long term strategic consequences of using a particular source of chlorine.

Work Programme

  1. Engage with chemical suppliers to review the impact of changes in energy costs and other factors on chlorine costs. Review current and future safety legislation (e.g. changes to hazardous area classification (ATEX) and legislation governing the storage and use of chlorine gas). Hold meetings with the relevant regulators (e.g. HSE) where appropriate.
  2. Engage with major equipment suppliers to determine current equipment specifications, performance and anticipated technological improvements.
  3. Audit installed equipment to obtain an independent assessment of performance where information is currently unavailable (e.g. new on-site membrane, calcium hypochlorite batch make-up, optimised on-site membrane-free).
  4. Develop whole life costs for the major options for chlorine based on system sizes and other constraints agreed with contributors.

Project Output

  • A full market report detailing the principal options for chlorine systems, their relative costs and associated advantages and disadvantages.
  • A workshop to review the implications of the work for asset planning and refurbishment of current systems.

Related WRc Work

  • Extensive knowledge of electrochlorination technology including recent audits of over 40 individual electrochlorination systems for individual UK water utilities, 2001 2006.
  • Past work to evaluate the use of slow release calcium hypochlorite for booster chlorination (2001) and guidelines for the design and operation of chlorine systems (1995).
WRc's Portfolio Programme
Summary of the £1.5 million per annum research programme

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